There was a fear of independence in India due to Muslim communalism and their intentions to break India and 562 kings with the smell of independence in Fijas.
It was Sardar’s foresight that on the one hand, in order to increase the pressure on the already weakened British, he protested against the fighters of Azad Hind Fauj in November 1945, while in the naval rebellion of February 1946, Britain’s independence of India In order to avoid any excuse to avoid, the rebel sailors were opposed and persuaded them to surrender.
Similarly C.R. Adopting his initial opposition to the formula, he took a pragmatic stand and prevented India from self-destructions by accepting the provisions of the Cabinet Mission and preventing Jinnah from going to power.
In a changed development, in his meetings with Mountbatten, who had come up with a recommendation of Cripps and a ‘conditional blessing’ of Churchill on Krishna Menon’s secret suggestion, he explored the British mentality, and then Sardar introduced another feature of his own.
Mountbatten vowed to the chieftain that Churchill and other hard-core supremacists like him would not oppose joining the Commonwealth of India to satisfy British elements, and in return Mountbatten would help the chieftain fill his basket with ‘apples’. These ‘apples’ were actually the 562 princely states of India which were occupied by 5 lakh sq. Mms of land i.e. 40% of the land and a population of 8.5 crores and who were waiting for the declaration of abolition of British supremacy in order to declare their sovereignty. . Many of the princes of these princely states were luxuriant, sensuous, characterless and merciless who did not even care for the aspirations of the Indian people. Many rulers like Nizam of Hyderabad, Scindia of Gwalior, Kachhwaha of Jaipur and Rathore of Jodhpur also had powerful armies.
Sardar’s vision made it clear that without the cooperation of the British, it would not be easy to deal with these princely states, and anyway the British and America were their natural allies to stop the communists who had reached Burma (Myanmar) under the leadership of Maotsetung in China. , So his behavioral brain did not see any harm in remaining in the Commonwealth. In return, he was getting the moral support of the British as Mountbatten and active support of the British system.
The first step of this cooperation was Mountbatten’s huge press conference on 4 June 1947, in which all the princely states and the Nawabs were also invited and Mountbatten himself gave three options –
1- Merger in India
2- Merger in Pakistan
3- Declaration of independent sovereign state
But the focus of the princely states was more in the third option, except for the first two options, and excitedly from big states like Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Bhopal to small states like Bilaspur also started dreaming of independent autocratic monarchy.
The Nawabs of Bhopal and the Nizams of Hyderabad on 5 June and Travancore on 11 June made a clear declaration that they would become independent after 15 August 1947.
But Mountbatten still lived up to his promise and the second step of his cooperation was – ‘support to establish the princely department on 5 July 1947 and hand it over to Sardar Patel’.
Sardar had an amazing quality of testing and using them at the right place and at the right time, and while introducing this, he appointed VP Menon in this department in place of HV Iyengar recommended by Nehru on whom Mountbatten was very Used to depend. In addition to his ability, the Sardar also saw him as a link between the Viceroy and himself, and Menon never disappointed him.
Sardar Patel used all the policies like Sam, Daam, Dand, Bhed for the integration of India.
Firstly on 5 July, using the ‘Sam Niti’, Sardar called upon the Nawabs, the King to merge with India on very soft terms.
But with the passage of Indian Independence Act in the British Parliament on 18 July 1947, the political rat cat game started in the Indian subcontinent. Bhopal, Travancore, Hyderabad had already declared independence and some princely states like Dholpur, Alwar etc. started dreaming the same.
In line with his pledge of cooperation, Mountbatten convened the last meeting of Narendra Mandal on 25 July 1947 and called for the kings of India to be merged with India. In line with his ‘Sam policy’, Sardar Patel called upon the kings to display patriotic sacrifice and accept the call of nationalism, and also promised to ‘protect the privy purse and privileges of the kings’ by using the ‘Daam Niti’. gave. Most of the younger kings were impressed by his promise and were ready to merge with India.
But here, at the instigation of Nawab Hamidullakhan of Bhopal, at the temptation of King Jinnah of Jodhpur, he was scoffing at the proposal of merger in Pakistan and the rulers of Bikaner and Jaisalmer were looking towards this young ambitious king of Jodhpur, but the awareness of Sardar Patel, Dewan of Jodhpur, Rajmata and Maharana Bhupalsingh of Udaipur gave a patriotic lesson to Hanuwant Singh of ‘#Historical_Fatkar’ Shelter they were the same men are ashamed to come to wisdom.
Bikaner was already separated from this threesome, so on August 6, 1947, the order of merger started with the signatures of Bikaner King Sadul Singh and after that a series of signatures on the merger papers started.
After several dramatic developments, finally the King of Jodhpur Hanuwant Singh also signed the merger. Other kings had already agreed. Jaipur King signed the merger from Europe and sent it. Now only the united Rajasthan was formed, whose foundation had already been laid in the form of ‘Matsya Union’.
The young Raja of Bastar was persuaded to join the Indian Union by removing him from the vicious cycle of Nizam.
23 of Orissa and 38 of Nagpur ‘apples’ spontaneously came in the Sardar’s basket.
The princely states of Gwalior, Indore and Vindhya in Madhya Pradesh also surrendered.
Even in Saurashtra division, ‘Uncle Jam Saheb’ of ‘Nawanagar’ was co-ordinated by ‘Sama and Damaniti’ in collaboration with his brother Colonel Himmat Singh, which succeeded that more than 222 kings of the entire Saurashtra region, except Junagadh, signed the merger. .
By forming this unified Saurashtra, he fulfilled his Guru Gandhiji’s wish and also offered his ‘Gurudakshina’. Gaikwad of Baroda, despite crying bitterly, finally signed the merger.
After this Patel reached Mumbai and annexed the princely states of South India.
But the King of Travancore had no effect on Sardar Patel’s goodwill and proper conditions and started behaving like a sovereign ruler from 11 June itself. Sardar eventually warned the ruler of Travancore and ‘sudden’ there started a fierce movement in support of the annexation, even as a ‘fiery patriot’ attacked the king with a knife, repeating the history of “Orsini”. The fearful king signed the merger letter on 12 August. Sardar Patel got the sign signed on the merger letter from the Cochin State and put an end to the estrangement from Travancore so that the restructuring of the southern states should not be disturbed.
After this Sardar reached Punjab and placed merger papers in front of the princely states of Punjab including Patiala. The Empty Treasure King of Patiala signed but the Nawab of Faridkot showed a slight arrogance. The Sardar drew a red circle with a pencil on Faridkot on the map and asked the exorbitant, “What do you want?”
A few moments later the princely state of Faridkot had become an integral part of India.
Now only four princely states were left.
# Junagadh, # Kashmir, # Hyderabad and # Bhopal
Nawab Mahabat Khan Khan III, a scholar-fan of the Babi dynasty of Junagadh, crushed the spirit of 99% of the Hindu subjects and declared a merger of his princely state in Pakistan on 14 August 1947, which aroused the masses and started a strong mass movement under the instigation of Sardar Patel. Seeing the dogma of the Nawab, Sardar Patel too sternly took police action on 9 November 1947 and the Nawab with his dogs fled to Pakistan and Junagadh was merged with India. This merger was later confirmed in a referendum on 20 February 1948.
The Kashmir merger case was quite complicated and could not be implemented by Sardar Patel because firstly Prime Minister Nehru had taken over the Kashmir issue and secondly till that time Mountbatten was ‘two apples’ – ‘Kashmir and Hyderabad’. Was determined not to let Sardar get into the basket under changed international conditions.
King Hari Singh Dogra of Kashmir, Jinnah and Nehru wanted to join both India and Pakistan because of their hatred of both Jinnah and Nehru, but they wanted to maintain their dynasty by making Kashmir ‘Switzerland of the East’. Mountbatten, meanwhile, moved away from his predecessor and ‘advised’ the Maharaja to choose either India or Pakistan, whereas earlier he had been encouraging the kings to merge with India.
Initially Sardar was committed to get the princely states merged according to the demographic distribution which Ramchandra Guha has given as Sardar’s consent to give Muslim-majority Kashmir to Pakistan. But first he took a completely harsh attitude, irritated by the Jodhpur episode and then the Junagadh episode. This was confirmed by the order of repair of the road going to Kashmir, as soon as the district of Gurdaspur of strategic importance was found by the Radcliffe Line, which became effective from 17 August 1947. Sardar Patel explicitly ordered it to be made strong and fast for rapid transport of heavy military equipment. It is clear from this that they either knew clearly or feared that Pakistan would invade Kashmir and then this road would be much needed for Indian military action.
Sardar Patel’s fears turned out to be true. On 22 October 1947, tribesmen led by Pakistani army officers invaded Kashmir. Muslim soldiers of Kashmir’s army joined the tribes and they all reached Baramulla by 24 October.
The constrained Maharaja Hari Singh sought help from the Government of India. But the ‘one or two apples’ that Mountbatten had asked for exemption from the Sardar’s basket were also Kashmir. It appears that Mountbatten wanted to give Kashmir to Pakistan for ‘unknown reasons’. This becomes clear when he advises Nehru not to extend military aid to Kashmir until the Maharaja signs the merger.
Sardar Patel, who was watching the events in deep peace, suddenly came into action. Along with Kashmir Prime Minister Mehrchand Mahajan, he sent Menon to take the Maharaja’s signature on the merger. Airchief Marshal Busher was ordered to keep one aircraft for himself and the other to carry the remaining aircraft to the army.
Menon returned with a signature on the merger letter and then he himself left for Srinagar. The airstrip was miraculously repaired by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh volunteers when they returned to meet the Maharaja in Jammu on which Indian Army aircraft were landing. The people of Srinagar welcomed the Indian Army as liberators. The Indian army retaliated against the tribesmen and they were now running behind.
Kashmir was now safe and no one suspected it to be an integral part of India. But Mountbatten was not going to give up so soon and he persuaded Nehru very easily to take the matter to the United Nations. Sardar ran his personal secretary Shankar to stop this radio broadcast till the last minute but …….
Now it was the turn of Hyderabad. 82698 sq. M long long land area, 87% Hindu population ruled by Usman Ali Asafja, a descendant of the invaders from Central Asia, who were running autocratically with the titles of ‘Nizam’ and ‘His Exalted Highness’ and were the main forces of ‘Majlis’. -A-Ittehadul Muslimeen’s Razakar and his executor Kasim Rizvi who was also his chief advisor.
The kingly goons, determined to make Hyderabad a fully independent and sovereign ‘Islamic Nizam’, broke the mountains of atrocities on the majority but peaceful Hindus and the situation became unbearable for the Sardar.
Earlier in 1948, Mountbatten made the last attempt to save Hyderabad and convinced Sardar for the autonomy of Hyderabad, which Sardar called ‘stomach ulceration’ and Sardar signed the file with a mysterious smile but his The secret of the smile was revealed when the Nizam rejected the proposal on the advice of Rizvi and decided to buy arms from around the world and get recognition from other countries. Started shouting His actions opened the doors of ‘Operation Polo’ for Sardar. This time Sardar ignored Nehru’s advice to settle the dispute peacefully and the Indian Army entered Hyderabad on 17 September 1948.